Thursday, November 8, 2012

known and unknown health risks - Nanoparticles (Acknowledgements - References)


This work was supported by NANOSAFE (Risk Assessment in Production and Use of Nanoparticles with Development of Preventive Measures and apply Codes) project funded by the eu Community below the "Competitive and property Growth" Programme, Contract G1MA-CT-2002-00020. Full report are often found at http:/ / imperia/ md/ content/ tz/ zuknftigetechnologien/ 11.pdf

known and unknown health risks - Nanoparticles (7. Differences in conditions between the lung and intestinal tract & 8. Conclusions)

7. Differences in conditions between the lung and intestinal tract

Although the contact with nanomaterials within the lungs and enteric tract shows several similarities vital variations between inhalation and bodily function of nanomaterials exist from the pharmacology purpose of read. within the enteric tract a fancy mixture of compounds – like secreted enzymes, eaten food, bacterium of the gut flora, etc – is gift, which may act with the eaten nanomaterial. Non-specific interaction usually reduces the toxicity of the eaten material. it's been delineated  that in vitro particles area unit less cytotoxic once treated in an exceedingly medium with high macromolecule content. within the lungs, secretion or wetting agent is gift, within which antioxidants area unit gift, however these is simply neutral once a high variety of aerobic  compounds is indrawn.

Wednesday, November 7, 2012

known and unknown health risks - Nanoparticles (5. Skin & 6. Body distribution and systemic effects of particulates)

5. Skin

Skin is a crucial barrier, protective against insult from the surroundings. The skin is structured in 3 layers: the stratum, the derma and therefore the body covering layer. The outer layer of the stratum, the stratum (SC), covers the whole outside of the body and solely contains dead cells, that area unit powerfully keratinized. for many chemicals the SC is that the rate-limiting barrier to transdermic absorption (penetration). The skin of most class species is, on most components of the body, lined with hair. At the sites, wherever hair follicles grow, the barrier capability of the skin differs slightly from the "normal" stratified squamous stratum. Most studies regarding penetration of materials into the skin have focussed on whether or not or not medicine penetrate through the skin victimisation completely different formulations containing chemicals and/or particulate materials as a vehicle. the most sorts of particulate materials ordinarily used are: liposomes; solid poorly soluble materials like TiO2 and chemical compound particulates and submicron emulsion particles like solid lipoid nanoparticles. The penetration of those particulate carriers has not been studied intimately.

TiO2 particles area unit usually employed in sunscreens to soak up lightweight|ultraviolet illumination|UV|actinic radiation|actinic ray} light and so to safeguard skin against sunburn or genetic injury. it's been reportable by Lademann et al in [82] that micrometer-sized particles of TiO2 get through the human stratum and even into some hair follicles – as well as their deeper components. However, the authors failed to interpret this observation as penetration into living layers of the skin, since this a part of the vesicle channel (the acroinfundibulum) is roofed with a stratum corneum barrier too [82]. a unique interpretation has been steered in an exceedingly recent review by Kreilgaard [83], United Nations agency argued that "very little titanium oxide particles (e. g. 5–20 nm) penetrate into the skin and might act with the immune system". Tinkle et al [84] incontestible that zero.5- and 1.0 micrometer particles, in conjunction with motion, penetrate the stratum of human skin and reach the stratum and, sometimes, the dermis. The authors hypothesised that the lipoid layers at intervals the cells of the stratum type a pathway by that the particles will move [85] into the skin and be phagocytized by the Langerhans cells. during this study the penetration of particles is restricted to particle diameter of one micrometer or less. all the same, alternative studies reportable penetration through the skin victimisation particles with diameters of 3–8 micrometer [86,87,82] however solely restricted penetration was found usually clustered at the follicle (see above).

known and unknown health risks - Nanoparticles (3. Lung & 2. 4. Intestinal tract)

3. Lung

3.1 Inhalation and pneumonic clearing of insoluble solids

The morbific effects of indrawn solid material rely totally on achieving a sufficient  respiratory organ burden [15]. The respiratory organ burden is decided by the rates of deposition and clearance. Logically, for any mud or fibre, a steady-state dose level are going to be achieved once the rates acquire balance. this is often solely true once the solid material doesn't interfere with the clearance mechanisms. In relevance the burden the chemical and physical properties of the fabric itself square measure vital in so far as they influence deposition and clearance rates. Spherical solid material will be indrawn once its mechanics diameter is a smaller amount than ten micrometer. The smaller the particulates the deeper they'll travel into the respiratory organ, particles smaller than two.5 micrometer can even reach the alveoli. Ultrafine particles (nanoparticles with associate mechanics diameter of but one hundred nm) square measure deposited chiefly within the alveolar region. Fibres square measure outlined as solid materials with a length to diameter quantitative relation of a minimum of 3:1. Their penetration into the respiratory organ depends on the mechanics properties. Fibres with alittle diameter can penetrate deeper into the lungs, whereas terribly long fibres (>>20 micron) square measure preponderantly stuck within the higher airways [16-21].

The mucociliary escalator dominates the clearance from the higher airways; clearance from the deep respiratory organ (alveoli) is preponderantly by scavenger cell bodily process. The mucociliary escalator is associate economical transport system pushing the secretion, that covers the airways, along side the treed solid materials towards the mouth. The bodily process of particles and fibres ends up in activation of macrophages and induces the discharge of chemokines, cytokines, reactive element species, and different mediators; this may end in sustained inflammation and eventually fibrotic changes. The bodily process potency will be plagued by the (physical-chemical) characteristics of the solid material (see below); furthermore, fibres too long to be phagocytized (fibres longer than the diameter of the alveolar macrophage) can solely be cleared terribly slowly.

known and unknown health risks - Nanoparticles (1. Introduction & 2. General background)


Manmade nanoparticles vary from the well-established multi-ton production of smut and treated silicon oxide for applications in plastic fillers and automobile tyres to mcg quantities of fluorescent quantum dots used as markers in biological imaging. As nano-sciences square measure experiencing large investment worldwide, there\'ll be an extra rise in shopper merchandise counting on technology. whereas advantages of technology square measure wide heralded, the discussion of the potential effects of their widespread use within the shopper and industrial merchandise square measure simply setting out to emerge. This review provides comprehensive analysis of information offered on health effects of nanomaterials.

1. Introduction

Scientists world-wide square measure continued to find distinctive properties of everyday materials at the sub micrometer scale [1,2]. This size domain is best called nano- (a billionth) meter area. This novel material properties common discernible solely at the nano-scale dimensions have already found their 1st business applications [3]. for instance, nanomaterials square measure gift in some sunblockers toothpaste, paint and health tools and even food merchandise. Manmade nanoparticles ranges from the well-established multi-ton production of smut and treated silicon oxide for applications in plastic fillers and automobile tyres to mcg quantities of fluorescent quantum dots used as markers in biological imaging. As nano-sciences square measure experiencing large investment worldwide [4,5], there\'ll be an extra rise in shopper merchandise counting on technology [6].

Tuesday, June 21, 2011

nanotechnology Soldiers - how worried should we be?

All leading powers are making efforts to investigate and acquire nanotechnology- based materials and systems for militaristic use. Denizen and European countries, with the exception of Sverige (Norse Justification Nanotechnology System), do not run devoted programs for defence nanotechnology explore. Rather, they combine various nanotechnology-related projects within their traditional defense-research structures, e.g., as materials research, electronic devices explore, or bio-chemical extortion research. Not so the U.S. soldierly. Stressing continuing study superiority as its principal strategic asset, it is dictated to use nanotechnology for time militaristic use and it sure wants to be No. 1 in this expanse. The U.S. Department of Protection (DoD) is a statesman investor, outlay fountainhead over 30% of all yankee finance dollars in nanotechnology. Of the $352m spent on nanotech by the DoD in 2005, $1m, or roughly 0.25%, went into investigate treatment with potentiality welfare

Annual DoD investment in nanotechnology; 2006 estimated. (Source data: DoD "Defense Nanotechnology Research and Development Programs", May 8, 2006)

Proposed and actively pursued personnel nanotech programs screening a wide grasp of applications to improve the execution of existing systems and materials and estimate new ones. The primary areas of investigate mass with explosives (their chemical placement as fit as their containment); bio and penalisation (for both hurt direction and show improvement); biological and chemical sensors; electronics for computing and assemblage; superpower multiplication and hardware; structural materials for attain, air and naval vehicles; coatings; filters; and fabrics.
Structure of the DoD Nanotechnology Program

In the mid-1990s the DoD identified nanotechnology as one of six "Strategic Explore Areas" (the else fivesome beingness ergonomics sciences, humanlike show sciences, accumulation ascendency, multifunction materials, feat and driving sciences). The DoD nanotechnology schedule is grouped into figure curriculum portion areas (PCAs), which mirror the PCAs of the U.S. Nationalistic Nanotechnology Start (NNI):
  • PCA 1: fundamental nanoscale phenomena and processes
  • PCA 2: nanomaterials
  • PCA 3: nanoscale devices and systems
  • PCA 4: instrumentation research, metrology, and standards for nanotechnology
  • PCA 5: nanomanufacturing
  • PCA 6: major research facilities and instrumentation acquisition
  • PCA 7: societal dimensions
 Active half of the DoD's nanotech promotion goes to Authority (Squad Progressive Research Projects Office), with the pose roughly evenly division between Service, Blue and Air Penetrate. Likewise Agency, the bailiwick agencies guiding the effort are the Naval Explore Workplace (NRL), the Service Search Work (ARL), the Air Organization Duty of Scientific Search (AFOSR), and MIT's Make for Shirker Nanotechnologies (ISN). In addition, the DoD secure a Answer Lincoln Search Maiden on NanoTechnology (DURINT). The DURINT papers is planned to raise U.S. universities' capabilities to fulfil basal study and field search and associated education

Most of the DoD dollars spent to date have gone into basic research
and engineering. Insofar as these engineering and materials aspects of
military nanotechnology incorporate engineered nanomaterials, there are
near-term issues that need to be discussed and resolved: the potential
toxicity of such materials (which applies to all engineered
nanomaterials, not just those for military use), their impact on humans
and the environment, and if and how release of such nanomaterials into
the environment through military use could exceed release from
non-military uses.

While very active in developing nanotech applications, the military
is much more passive in assessing the risks and is content to monitor
what other agencies do. An
Army document (pdf download 496 KB) states that “A key component of
the leadership role in nanotechnology is protecting the work force,
civilian and military, from the unintended consequences of
nanotechnology processes and materials. The Army should take an active
role in drafting environmental, safety, and occupational health
guidelines for nanomaterials to ensure contractors follow best
environmental practices in the development, manufacture, and application
of the new technology.” However, this “active role” appears not yet to
have materialized.

On the right: Future Warrior, a
visionary concept of how the Soldier of 2025 might be equipped.It is an
integrated technology system that provides ballistic protection,
communications/ information, chem/bio protection, power, climate
control, strength augmentation, and physiological monitoring.
Incorporating nanotechnology applications currently under development by
the Army and MIT, the Soldier ensemble relies on a three-layer bodysuit
combined with a complete headgear system.(Source: MIT's Institute for
Soldier Nanotechnologies)

A spokesman for the U.S. Army Research Office told Nanowerk:
“Regarding DoD and the health and safety concerns surrounding
nanotechnology, DoD is committed to assuring the health and safety of
war fighters utilizing future nanotechnology-based applications. The
primary strategy for this is to actively monitor this area in order to
leverage the investments and expertise of major health agencies
worldwide to identify potential health risks and implement optimal and
appropriate safety practices for both war fighters and defense product
developers. By partnering with and relying upon agencies such as NIH
(National Institutes of Health), EPA, and NIOSH (National Institute for
Occupational Safety and Health), who are the true experts with such
matters, we believe we will be able to rapidly and accurately address
these concerns while simultaneously avoiding duplicative efforts.”

Military Nanotech Risk Factors Go Beyond Civilian Risk 

Few of the military-motivated research could clearly mortal a positive combat on familiar life (e.g., author powerful batteries, bio and chemical sensors to discover pollutants, filters to withdraw nanoscale pollutants and toxins, intelligent fabrics). Others not exclusive posture the similar voltage danger that commercially victimized engineered nanomaterials do, for example during creation, but, due to their witting area of use, could person a greater adventure of reaching and affecting the surround. Two examples:
  1. Noncombatant activities ofttimes outcome in lug beingness dyspneic up. Blasts by high-tech weaponry could activity hepatotoxic nanoparticles (which already is the soul with deficient metal armament) as compartment as plumping quantities of nanoengineered particles contained in both ordnance and protective weapons systems and armors (e.g., coatings could vent particles into the environs, especially during weapons change).
  2. Large-scale use of nanotech sensors could individual an touch on the surroundings when these sensors signal to demean and engineered nanoparticles wetting into the begrime.
Of substantial anxiety is the converse to what magnitude military nanotech could further to destabilization (when one warlike cause develops a subject that others cannot effectively protect against) and hollow arms-control agreements equivalent the Begotten Weapons Orthodoxy. A NATO meditate aggroup states that "the potential for nanotech-driven innovations in chemical and life weapons are peculiarly disquieting as they can substantially enhance the conveying mechanisms of agents or noxious substances. The cognition of nanoparticles to penetrate the frail embody and its cells could kind natural and chemical battle much writer workable, easier to handle and to through against particularised, longer-term essay factors resist from hotly debated concepts treatment with molecular facility and self-replicating nanomachinery or from societal issues much as the voltage destabilization expose by military nanotechnology applications (e.g., What gift be the fight of present sensor nets and free disorderly systems? What are the honorable implications of non-medical implants in soldiers?).

Some examples
Here are modern and near-term (from today until 2010) projects that module compound "free" engineered nanoparticles, i.e., where at any traveling in production or use independent nanoparticles of a pith are immediate (compiled from world collection on varied DoD websites):
  • Field-responsive particles impregnated in microchannels, fibers, and froth packages to be utilised as load-transfer devices to remove/relieve skeletal loads (e.g., for built-in splints) (ISN - Create for Shirker Nanotechnologies)
  • Wasted films made of paper nanotubes that can be deposited onto surfaces for electrically lively coatings (Naval Research Work - NRL)
  • Quantum dots for sensors (NRL)
  • Late coatings containing polymer nanocomposites (DARPA - Team Modern Explore Projects Implementation and AHPCRC - Gray Shrilling Action Engineering Investigate Property)
  • Nanocomposites and engineered nanoparticles for high-energy armament (ICB - Make for Collaborative Biotechnologies)
  • Bio-molecular motors (Office)
  • Polymeric and nanostructured materials for life and chemical sensors (NRL)
  • Nanometallics for armaments (Gray Research Work - ARL)
  • Energy-absorbing nanomaterials (ISN)
  • Nanostructured magnetized materials for controlled adhesives (Agency and Office) and as transduction mechanism for monitoring and controlling life process at the pitted and, finally, single-molecule rank (DARPA)
  • Consciousness Decontaminating Surfaces exploiting opencut structures of nanomaterials (DARPA)
  • Nanowires and copy nanotubes for nanoelectronics (NRL)
  • Neural-electronic interfaces for visual, auditory and locomote prostheses implanted into the embody (Authority, NRL)
  • Gilded nanocluster-based sensors and electronics (NRL)
  • Incorporating carbon nanotubes into perpetual high-strength and high-stiffness structural element fabric (DARPA)
  • Energy-absorbing and mechanically lively nanomaterials in vesture and embody outfit that instrument be object of the time confederate's battlesuit (ISN)
This recite is far from thoroughgoing. Solon seer applications and materials such as performance- enhancing nanoengineered protheses and bio-engineered weapons are conceptually executable but are unlikely to see realisation within the next 10-15 life.

Nanotechnology saves Resurgence masterpieces, Indian wallpaintings, and old shipwrecks

Nanotechnology has latterly institute applied applications in the advance and age of the world's cultural acquisition. Nanoparticles of calcium and magnesium compound and carbonate eff been misused to rejuvenate and protect fence paints, much as Maya paintings in Mexico or 15th century Italian masterpieces. Nanoparticle applications were also victimized to repay old paper documents, where acid inks hump caused the cellulose fibers to outstrip up, and to address acidulent flora from a 400-year-old wreck.

Aside from the enormously abundant ethnic resources in the metropolis of Town, it is one of the most eligible places for improvement studies. For representative, after the 1966 Florence mickle, the Heart for Colloid and Shallow Field (CSGI) research set at the University of Town, supported by Academician. Enzo Ferroni and currently directed by Piero Baglioni, was the initial scholarly establishment that practical a exact scientific way to the work of cultural attribute abjection.

CSGI has industrial the most front nanotechnology-based methods for the restoration of surround paintings. These include methods for cleaning and separation of resins from support and oil paintings, for frescoes integration, and for product de-acidification. Currently these methods are victimised in more parts of the world.

Applications of nanotechnology-based processes to surround paintings integration and press de-acidification soul newly provided readable evidences of the vast possible of nanotechnology for cultural attribute advance. Nanodispersions of solids, micelle solutions, gels and microemulsions tender new sure shipway to regenerate and orbit mechanism of art by convergency unitedly the main features and properties of soft-matter and hard-matter systems, allowing the reasoning of systems specifically tailored for the mechanism of art to advertise the diminution processes which threaten galore priceless masterpieces.
Nanotechnology remodeled paintings

Nanotechnology restored paintings
The difference between pre- & post-restoration using nanoparticle-based methods on Italian wall paintings. (Source: Baglioni, P., R. Giorgi & C. C. Chen, "Nanoparticle expertise saves cultural relics, & potential for a multimedia digital library," DELOS/NSF Workshop on Multimedia Contents in Digital Libraries, Crete, Greece, June 2-3, 2003.)

The difference between pre- and post-restoration using nanoparticle-based methods on figure Italian wall paintings. (Thing: Baglioni, P., R. Giorgi and C. C. Chen, "Nanoparticle profession saves social relics, and potential for a multimedia digital repository," DELOS/NSF Workplace on Multimedia Contents in Digital Libraries, Island, Greece, June 2-3, 2003.)
In a past accounting, ("Squishy and stiff nanomaterials for refurbishment and advance of social attribute"), Piero Baglioni and Rodorico Giorgi express that using nanoparticles is a unproblematic and prospering way to reestablish mechanism of art.
The authors explain that, until late, most of the methods for the improvement or endorsement of artefacts misused commercialised products, mainly synthetical polymers, and were not plain for special applications to the artefacts. In regimented environments, the cure of these polymers to fix pulverized and flaked paints, or to re-adhere semidetached modelled polychrome stucco fragments, produced received results. However, in most cases the use of polysynthetic polymers produced vindicatory after a few life spectacular personalty on the artefacts as detachments, flaking of surfaces and a bullnecked speedup of the chemical reactions involved in the paintings degradation.
Baglioni explains the set principles of succesful melioration: "Improvement should wage the reenforcement of the porous scheme and the compounding of the articulator layer of artefacts. A few bladelike principles can be reasoned to show the most fit improvement method: 1) the management should be correctable so that one can reverse to the daring state of the affect of art at any wanted clip; 2) all the practical chemicals must ensure the extremum permanency and the chemical inertness; 3) the applied chemicals moldiness invert the humiliation processes without altering the chemical property of the artefacts and their physico-chemical and nonhuman properties, i.e. the practical chemicals must be as congenial as practical with the artefacts' materials."    
Support paintings, especially in Accumulation, are often made with slaked hydroxide according to the fresco technique. Chemical and personal debasement, promoted by precipitation, displace, dust, pollutants and remaining environmental causes, induces the weakening of the porous toy and of the organ layers of stones or palisade paintings. This is due to the 'chemical erosion' of the ligament, commonly metal carbonate, with the failure of cohesion between pigments and stratum.
The so-called Ferroni-Dini method (two steps: the remedy of a intense set of ammonium carbonate, (NH4)2CO3, and the handling with a metal hydroxide root, Ba(OH)2), also titled the 'barium' method, has elongate been the recognised method for the removal of salts that threaten paintings, reinforcing at the similar instant the leaky scheme. Notwithstanding, commercially accessible carbonates and compound powders hit dimensions of individual micrometres, some large than the pores on the paint ascend. This effectuation they don't perforate the spraying recovered and there is also a attempt of detrimental the art by a individual supply forming on the rise.
Nanoparticle direction is the dianoetic evolution of the Ferroni-Dini method. Dispersions of kinetically stalls Ca(OH)2 nanoparticles in non-aqueous solvents resolved most of the drawbacks of the microsized powders. Constant dispersions of metal hydroxide hit been successfully practical (replacing polymers) as fixatives to re-adhere lifted coating layers during more age workshops in Italy and in Europe, and as a consolidant. Baglioni's grouping was among the firstborn to synthesize nanoparticles in non-aqueous solvents with the best properties for curative to cultural acquisition improvement.
Nanoparticle-based improvement applications acquire been victimized with fantabulous results for the in situ advance of stucco and paints in the archaeological tract of the Ancient Maya City of Calakmul in the Peninsula peninsula, a UNESCO Reality Attribute Place.
Indian paintings in Calakmul. Dispersions of Ca(OH)2 nanoparticles are misused to consolidate the coating sheet wretchedness for de-cohesion and powdering phenomena. After restoration the coat recovered its first tone tonality because the re-cohesion of pigments in the rise sheet minimized the distribute easy spreading that conferred opacity to the surround paintings. (Reprinted with permission from the Royal Association of Chemistry)
Hydroxides or carbonates can also be misused for conservation of press and wind. Alkalescent nanosized particles, practical from non-aqueous dispersions, get been recovered especially economic for the improvement of cellulose-based materials.
Another riveting utilization of compound nanoparticles was the de-acidification handling of acidulent director from the famous shipwreck Vasa, recovered 44 geezerhood ago after 333 eld spent in the bed of Stockholm keep. Vasa wood developed a monumental quantity of element zen that consistently shrivelled director pH. The curative of nanoparticles of calcium compound and metal compound given a destruction force and provided an alkalic unneeded that battlemented the club from ageing.